Effects of particle size of sucrose suspensions and pretreatments of enzymes on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sucrose-oleic acid esters
Ye, R., D. G. Hayes, and R. Burton.  2014.  Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 91 ( 11) 1891-1901.

Abstract:
The effects of high-speed homogenization, high-intensity ultrasound, and their combination were evaluated for the reduction of the particle size of sucrose crystals to enhance solvent-free lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sucrose oleate at 65 °C. The combination of homogenization and ultrasound greatly decreased the particle size of suspended sucrose crystals in mixtures of oleic acid/ sucrose oleate (86 wt% monoester and 14 wt% diester at a ratio of 90/10 w/w) from 88 to 18 ėm. The suspensionbased medium was charged to a stirred tank bioreactor that also contained immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei or Candida antarctica (LipozymeŽIM and NovozymŽ 435, respectively; Novozymes, Franklinton, NC, USA), that was pre-incubated in oleic acid for several different temperatures (23–60 °C), durations (4–24 h), and stir rates (50–400 rpm, radius of 3 cm), prior to use. The optimal performance was achieved using C. antarctica lipase (83.3 wt% ester, consisting of 46 wt% monoester) in the presence of molecular sieves (18 wt%). The low water concentration (~0.12 wt%) did not affect the activity of C. antarctica lipase.