Multifunctional perennial production systems for bioenergy: performance and progress
Englund, O., I. Dimiriou, V.H, Dale, K. L. Kline, B. Mola-Yudego, F. Murphy, B. C. English, J. McGrath, G. Busch, M. C. Negri, M. Brown, G. Devlin, K. Goss, S. Jackson, k. McDonnell, E.S. Parish, and H. Ssegane, J. Quinn, and J. Cacho.  2020.  WIRES Energy and the Environment, WIREs Energy Environ. 2020;e375.

Abstract:
As a growing and wealthier global population requires more food and biomaterials, biomass demands will increase. Demand growth is accelerated by the implementation of climate policies and strategies to replace the use of fossil resources with biomass. There are however concerns about the size of the prospective biomass demand, and the environmental and social consequences of the corresponding resource mobilization, especially concerning impacts from the associated land use change. A strategic introduction of lignocellulosic perennial plants into agricultural landscapes, can enhance landscape diversity, habitat quality, retention of nutrients and sediment, erosion control, climate regulation, pollination, pest and disease control, and flood regulation. Such “multifunctional perennial production systems” can thus contribute to improving overall land use sustainability, while maintaining or increasing overall biomass productivity in the landscape. Seven different cases in different world regions are here reviewed to exemplify and evaluate (1) establishment of multifunctional systems to meet emerging bioenergy demands, and (2) efforts to identify specific locations where the establishment of perennial crops will be particularly beneficial. An important barrier towards wider implementation of multifunctional systems is the lack of markets, or policies, compensating producers for enhanced ecosystem services and other environmental benefits. This is particularly important since prices for fossil-based fuels are low relative to bioenergy production costs. Without such compensation, producers have weak incentives to implement multifunctional perennial production systems.